Time course in general:
- Scene categorization and action type already available at 107 ms.
- Bias to outdoor classificasions with shorter durations but little confusion between manmade outdoor and natural outdoor. This bias is not linked to differential time courses of low-level, sensory information or in object recognition. Open question: Are some discriminative features missing?
- Weak but signifcant correlation between object and scene recognition up till 107 ms. Driven primarily by a strong correlation between inanimate object and scene perception from 40 ms on, but little correlation between animate object and scene perception. Conclusion: object and scene processing share some resources.
Superordinate (e.g., inanimate natural object, indoor) versus basic-level processing (rock, office):
- No clear faster processing of basic-level object categories versus superordinate categories (in conflict with Rosch, 1978).
- At 27 ms, there is a slight advantage in perceiving an animate object.
- Evidence for an object hierarchy: coarser level object categorization precedes finer grain recognition.
- No evidence for a scene hierarchy: superordinate-level categorization requires as much information as basic level.
Sensory versus semantic information:
- Sensory information dominates over semantic object and outdoor scene information until 53 ms; for indoor scenes, until 80 ms (in conflict with Grill-Spector & Kanwisher, 2005). Object information becomes dominant earlier than scene. Conclusion: “shape-related information has a slight advantage over semantically meaningful information of a scene”.